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Scientific Papers

Scientific Papers

Educational kits contain the same products and technologies developed by CAEN for the major experiments worldwide.
This section is dedicated to a collection of scientific papers developed by Academic World using CAEN Educational kits or some subparts.

Overview

Published Papers

Silicon Photomultipliers and SPAD imagers in biophotonics: Advances and perspectives

Photonics is essential in life science research and the continuous development of methods offers researchers tools of unprecedented sensitivity. Sensors are key to the exploitation of the most advanced biophotonic techniques with highly demanding specifications in terms of single photon sensitivity, time resolution, miniaturisation real-time processing and data throughput. Silicon photomultipliers and Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) imagers represent the state-of-the-art in photon detection with single photon sensitivity, photon number resolving capability and the possibility to integrate on chip advanced functionalities. As a consequence, they can be the platform for the next generation biophotonic instruments and methods. This paper summarises the main biophotonic techniques and reports exemplary applications of Silicon Photomultipliers and SPAD imagers for fluorescence, chemiluminescence, time correlated single photon counting and imaging. Achievements and current limitations are addressed, pointing as well to the most recent technology advances and highlighting the possible pathways for the near future.

Characterization of SiPMs

Silicon photomultipliers, thanks to their excellent performance, robustness and relatively simple use, are the photon-detectors of choice for many present and future applications. This paper gives an overview of methods to characterise SiPMs. The different SiPM parameters are introduced and generic setups for their determination presented. Finally, ways to extract the parameters from the measurements are discussed and the results shown. If a parameter can be obtained from different measurements, the results are compared and recommendations given, which is considered to be the most reliable. The characterisation of SiPMs, in particular for high light intensities and in high radiation fields, is presently a field of intensive research with many open questions and problems which will be discussed.

Training Future Engineers to Be Ghostbusters: Hunting for the Spectral Environmental Radioactivity

Although environmental radioactivity is all around us, the collective public imagination often associates a negative feeling to this natural phenomenon. To increase the familiarity with this phenomenon we have designed, implemented, and tested an interdisciplinary educational activity for pre-collegiate students in which nuclear engineering and computer science are ancillary to the comprehension of basic physics concepts. Teaching and training experiences are performed by using a 4″ x 4″ NaI(Tl) detector for in-situ and laboratory gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements. Students are asked to directly assemble the experimental setup and to manage the data-taking with a dedicated Android app, which exploits a client-server system that is based on the Bluetooth communication protocol. The acquired {\gamma}-ray spectra and the experimental results are analyzed using a multiple-platform software environment and they are finally shared on an open access Web-GIS service […]. Supporting information to the basic physics concepts provided in this article can be found at this http URL.

The EasyPET: A novel concept for an educational cost-effective positron emission 2D scanner

The easyPET concept proposed here, protected under a patent by the University of Aveiro, aims to realize a simple and affordable small dimension Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanner. This innovative system is based on a single pair of detectors and a rotating mechanism with two degrees of freedom reproducing the functionalities of an entire PET ring. A 2D imaging prototype has been designed, commissioned and engineered, targeted to high level education for physics, engineering and nuclear medicine students. In this paper the performance of the prototype is reported, with a focus on the imaging capability and on the measurement of the uncertainty in the reconstruction of the source position. In addition, a detailed analysis is dedicated to the slice sensitivity and in particular to the effect of the energy threshold on the coincidence event selection.

An EDUGATE simulation toolkit based on the educational easyPET

EasyPET is a new concept of a Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanner using an innovative acquisition method based on two rotation axes for the movement of detector pairs. Due to its simplicity, it is suitable for education purposes, to teach students about the PET technology and its basic concepts, from the radiation detecting and analogue pulse analysis to the coincidence sorting and image reconstruction. The concept allows achieving high and uniform position resolution over the whole field of view(FoV), by eliminating parallax errors due to the depth of interaction (DoI), which are typical of ring-based PET systems, so quality images are obtained even without state-of- the-art image reconstruction algorithms. The technology developed at the University of Aveiro with a patent-pending, is licensed to CAEN S.p.A, and included in the educational catalogue of the company. In this work, a simulation toolkit based in the Edugate platform was developed to simulate the EasyPET system.

CAEN Educational: Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments

CAEN S.p.A., an important industrial spin-off of the INFN (National Institute for Nuclear Physics), is pleased to present its new activities in the educational field. CAEN brings the experience acquired in almost 40 years of collaboration with the High Energy & Nuclear Physics community into the university educational laboratories by providing modern physics experiments based on the latest technologies and instrumentation. CAEN has realized different modular Educational Kits, all based on Silicon Photo multipliers (SiPM) state of-the-art light sensors with single photon sensitivity and unprecedented photon number resolving capability. They have proven to be suitable for anincreasing number of applications in science and industry. The main goal is to inspire students andguide them towards the analysis and comprehension of different physics phenomena with a series of experiments based on state-of-the art technologies, instruments and methods.

Characterization Measurements Methodology and Instrumental Set-Up Optimization for New SiPM Detectors-Part I: Electrical Tests

A comprehensive and in-depth characterization procedure for obtaining very accurate measurements on silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) detectors is described here. A large amount of electro-optical tests are systematically carried out in terms of the most significant SiPM performance parameters; in particular, an accurate estimation of the photon detection efficiency is achieved, based on the single-photon counting technique, with substraction of the dark noise contribution and avoiding the additional noise sources of crosstalk and after pulsing. Some recently produced detectors are analyzed and their relevant electro-optical parameters are evaluated in order to confirm the effectiveness and efficacy of the adopted characterization procedure in assessing the overall SiPM performance. The repeatibility of measurements is carefully verified. All evaluated parameter trends are proved to be compatible with the physics theory of the SiPM device.

 

Characterization Measurements Methodology and Instrumental Set-Up Optimization for New SiPM Detectors-Part II: Optical Tests

A comprehensive and in-depth characterization procedure for obtaining very accurate measurements on silicon photomultiplier detectors (SiPMs) is here described. A large amount of optical tests are systematically carried out and discussed in terms of the most important SiPM performance parameters; in particular, an accurate estimation of the photon detection efficiency in the 350-900-nm wavelength spectral range and in steps of 10 nm is achieved, based on the single-photon counting technique, with substraction of the dark noise contribution and avoiding the additional noise sources of crosstalk and afterpulsing. Some recently produced detectors are analyzed and their relevant electro-optical parameters are evaluated in order to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficacy of the adopted characterization procedure and data-handling protocols in assessing the overall SiPM performance, regardless of the specific device tested. Tests repeatibility is carefully verified and all the evaluated parameter trends are proved to be compatible with the physics theory of the SiPM device.

Reconstruction of the statistics of photons by a pulsed LED using a Silicon Photomultiplier based set-up

Silicon Photomultipliers are a new class of light sensitive detectors with single photon sensitivity and unprecedented photon number resolving capability. These properties open up the possibility to verify the statistics of the emitted light analysing the data collected by the sensor. In this paper, a procedure based on a Multi-Gaussian Fit of the spectrum and a model accounting for detector related effects is proposed and qualified using a LED illuminating a Silicon Photomultiplier.

 

Development of a Silicon Photomultiplier toolkit for science and education

Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) are a new class of photon sensors with single photon detection capability and high photon detection efficiency. They have been proved to be suitable for an increasing number of applications in science and industry. Nowadays, different companies are investing increasing efforts in SiPM detector performances and high quality mass production, such to make them a natural choice for an always wider field of applications. In this scenario, a flexible and easy-to-use system that allows the measurement of the main SiPM characteristics has become an important platform to exploit SiPMs in different applications. This system can also be used to setup a series of experiments aimed to train physics and engineering undergraduate and master students in detector measurements and statistics analysis.

Silicon Photomultipliers for Medical Imaging and Dosimetry-an Overview

Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are an enabling solid-state technology for low light sensing, with single photon sensitivity and photon number resolving capability. They feature an extremely high internal gain at the 106 level, comparable to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), with the advantage of low operating voltage (~50 V compared to ~1000 V for PMT) and low energy consumption. The solid-state technology makes SiPMs compact, insensitive to magnetic fields and with an extreme flexibility in the design to cope with different applications. The fast development of the multiplication avalanche opens up the possibility to achieve time resolution at the 30 ps level. Dynamic range is however limited compared to PMT and the dark count rate relatively high, yet today at the level of 50 kHz/mm2 at room temperature. Interfaced with scintillation material, SiPMs provide a powerful platform for medical imaging applications (in positron emission tomography/computed tomography and in positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance), for X-ray quality control as well as for novel compact radiation protection instruments. This article gives an overview of SiPMs for medical imaging and dosimetry. In addition, a learning and training program targeted to graduate students is described.

easyPET: a novel concept for an affordable tomographic system

The easyPET concept described here aims to reduce complexity and cost of preclinical Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanners. The system, original in its principle and realisation, is based on a single pair of detectors and a rotating mechanism with two degrees of freedom reproducing the functionalities of an entire PET ring. The characterisation of a 2D imaging prototype, realised to assess the easyPET concept, is presented in this paper. In particular, a spatial resolution of 1±0.1 mm and a sensitivity of 0.1% with an energy threshold of 80 keV have been measured. These encouraging results, compared to the performances of commercial preclinical PET, motivate the feasibility study of a 3D system.

Application of SiPM for Modern Nuclear Physics Practical Workshop

Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPM) are state of the art light detectors with very high single photon sensitivity and photon number resolving capability, representing a breakthrough in several fundamental and applied Science domains. So, introduction of SiPM in to the education is important process increasing the number of specialists involved in the SiPM development and application. As a result of collaborative efforts between industry and academic institutions modular set of instruments based on SiPM light sensors has been developed by CAEN s.p.a. It is developed for educational purposes mainly and allows performing a series of experiments including photon detection, gamma spectrometry, cosmic ray observation and beta and gamma ray absorption. In addition, an educational experiments based on a SiPM set-up guides students towards a comprehensive knowledge of SiPM technology while experiencing the quantum nature of light and exploring the statistical properties of the light pulses emitted by a LED. The toolbox is actually an open platform in continuous evolution thanks to the contribution of the research community and cooperation with high schools.

 

 

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