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Published Papers

Scientific Papers

Educational kits contain the same products and technologies developed by CAEN for the major experiments worldwide.
This section is dedicated to a collection of scientific papers developed by Academic World using CAEN Educational kits or some subparts.

Overview

Published Papers

Characterization Measurements Methodology and Instrumental Set-Up Optimization for New SiPM Detectors-Part I: Electrical Tests

A comprehensive and in-depth characterization procedure for obtaining very accurate measurements on silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) detectors is described here. A large amount of electro-optical tests are systematically carried out in terms of the most significant SiPM performance parameters; in particular, an accurate estimation of the photon detection efficiency is achieved, based on the single-photon counting technique, with substraction of the dark noise contribution and avoiding the additional noise sources of crosstalk and after pulsing. Some recently produced detectors are analyzed and their relevant electro-optical parameters are evaluated in order to confirm the effectiveness and efficacy of the adopted characterization procedure in assessing the overall SiPM performance. The repeatibility of measurements is carefully verified. All evaluated parameter trends are proved to be compatible with the physics theory of the SiPM device.

Characterization Measurements Methodology and Instrumental Set-Up Optimization for New SiPM Detectors-Part II: Optical Tests

A comprehensive and in-depth characterization procedure for obtaining very accurate measurements on silicon photomultiplier detectors (SiPMs) is here described. A large amount of optical tests are systematically carried out and discussed in terms of the most important SiPM performance parameters; in particular, an accurate estimation of the photon detection efficiency in the 350-900-nm wavelength spectral range and in steps of 10 nm is achieved, based on the single-photon counting technique, with substraction of the dark noise contribution and avoiding the additional noise sources of crosstalk and afterpulsing. Some recently produced detectors are analyzed and their relevant electro-optical parameters are evaluated in order to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficacy of the adopted characterization procedure and data-handling protocols in assessing the overall SiPM performance, regardless of the specific device tested. Tests repeatibility is carefully verified and all the evaluated parameter trends are proved to be compatible with the physics theory of the SiPM device.

Reconstruction of the statistics of photons by a pulsed LED using a Silicon Photomultiplier based set-up

Silicon Photomultipliers are a new class of light sensitive detectors with single photon sensitivity and unprecedented photon number resolving capability. These properties open up the possibility to verify the statistics of the emitted light analysing the data collected by the sensor. In this paper, a procedure based on a Multi-Gaussian Fit of the spectrum and a model accounting for detector related effects is proposed and qualified using a LED illuminating a Silicon Photomultiplier.

Development of a Silicon Photomultiplier toolkit for science and education

Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) are a new class of photon sensors with single photon detection capability and high photon detection efficiency. They have been proved to be suitable for an increasing number of applications in science and industry. Nowadays, different companies are investing increasing efforts in SiPM detector performances and high quality mass production, such to make them a natural choice for an always wider field of applications. In this scenario, a flexible and easy-to-use system that allows the measurement of the main SiPM characteristics has become an important platform to exploit SiPMs in different applications. This system can also be used to setup a series of experiments aimed to train physics and engineering undergraduate and master students in detector measurements and statistics analysis.

Silicon Photomultipliers for Medical Imaging and Dosimetry-an Overview

Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are an enabling solid-state technology for low light sensing, with single photon sensitivity and photon number resolving capability. They feature an extremely high internal gain at the 106 level, comparable to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), with the advantage of low operating voltage (~50 V compared to ~1000 V for PMT) and low energy consumption. The solid-state technology makes SiPMs compact, insensitive to magnetic fields and with an extreme flexibility in the design to cope with different applications. The fast development of the multiplication avalanche opens up the possibility to achieve time resolution at the 30 ps level. Dynamic range is however limited compared to PMT and the dark count rate relatively high, yet today at the level of 50 kHz/mm2 at room temperature. Interfaced with scintillation material, SiPMs provide a powerful platform for medical imaging applications (in positron emission tomography/computed tomography and in positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance), for X-ray quality control as well as for novel compact radiation protection instruments. This article gives an overview of SiPMs for medical imaging and dosimetry. In addition, a learning and training program targeted to graduate students is described.

easyPET: a novel concept for an affordable tomographic system

The easyPET concept described here aims to reduce complexity and cost of preclinical Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanners. The system, original in its principle and realisation, is based on a single pair of detectors and a rotating mechanism with two degrees of freedom reproducing the functionalities of an entire PET ring. The characterisation of a 2D imaging prototype, realised to assess the easyPET concept, is presented in this paper. In particular, a spatial resolution of 1±0.1 mm and a sensitivity of 0.1% with an energy threshold of 80 keV have been measured. These encouraging results, compared to the performances of commercial preclinical PET, motivate the feasibility study of a 3D system.

Application of SiPM for Modern Nuclear Physics Practical Workshop

Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPM) are state of the art light detectors with very high single photon sensitivity and photon number resolving capability, representing a breakthrough in several fundamental and applied Science domains. So, introduction of SiPM in to the education is important process increasing the number of specialists involved in the SiPM development and application. As a result of collaborative efforts between industry and academic institutions modular set of instruments based on SiPM light sensors has been developed by CAEN s.p.a. It is developed for educational purposes mainly and allows performing a series of experiments including photon detection, gamma spectrometry, cosmic ray observation and beta and gamma ray absorption. In addition, an educational experiments based on a SiPM set-up guides students towards a comprehensive knowledge of SiPM technology while experiencing the quantum nature of light and exploring the statistical properties of the light pulses emitted by a LED. The toolbox is actually an open platform in continuous evolution thanks to the contribution of the research community and cooperation with high schools.

Models

Interfaces & I/O

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Software

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Brochure

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